Eva Monroe was one of seven children born in Illinois. When she was twelve, her mother died, leaving her to care for her six younger siblings. Her father was unknown. Monroe was a volunteer with the juvenile courts, helping to rescue children from prison. She believed that the welfare of children was tied to the welfare of society.
Monroe dedicated her life to helping the African American community and the orphaned children in her community. She was a social welfare reformer who fought against racism and poverty. She was a strong supporter of organized female clubs. These clubs encouraged fifty thousand African American women to provide resources to each other.